Vietnam. At the beginning of the year, Vietnam received praise from the World Health Organization (WHO) for successfully stopping the spread of avian influenza. According to CountryAAH, major public holidays in Vietnam include Independence Day (September 2) and New Year (January 1). The emergency slaughter of millions of birds, extensive poultry vaccination programs and information campaigns aimed at the Vietnamese public was the recipe for success. During the year, Indonesia ranked Vietnam as the worst affected country in this context. No new cases of sick people have been documented since the end of 2005, when Vietnam had 93 of the world’s 169 cases of people infected with bird flu and 42 of the 92 deaths from the disease.
In December, bird flu broke out again among poultry in southern Vietnam, but no known cases of infected people occurred.
At the ruling Communist Party congress in April, party members elected new members to the Central Committee, which in turn appointed new representatives to the fourteen-strong Politburo (the powerful Communist Party’s powerful executive committee). The congress also elected a new president, Nguyễn Minh Triễt, former party leader in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), as well as new Prime Minister, Nguyễn Tân Dung, former Deputy Prime Minister. All appointments were expected and neither the one-party political or economic course would be altered by the change of person. Both the new president and the prime minister had previously made themselves known as successful reformists on the economic level. The Communist Party Secretary-General said at Congress that three priorities should be made: continuing the fight against corruption “that threatened the survival of the regime”;
In May, Vietnam and the United States signed a bilateral free trade agreement, which included This meant that foreign ownership in Vietnamese banks would increase and that the country opened its other financial markets to the outside world. On the other hand, the US removed restrictions on Vietnamese clothing imports into the US market. The Free Trade Agreement removed the last obstacle on Vietnam’s path to the coveted World Trade Organization (WTO) membership, and in November the country became the 150th member of the WTO.
Van Linh made a proposal for a “complete and radical renewal” of the economic and political system. The same year, a renewal and restructuring of the government was carried out, prior to the publication of a series of economic reforms, which included allowed free market formation for agricultural products and the establishment of private commerce. At the same time, laws were opened which opened up foreign investment and provided guarantees against the nationalization of the foreign companies. Furthermore, private ownership of agriculture was allowed, more freedom in the arts was introduced, while the VKP declared that it would pay more attention to the needs of the entire community, thus curbing the corruption that had invaded the whole party during that period., where it had been led by Le Duan.
In late 1988, the government implemented a series of crisis measures to combat inflation – including the devaluation of Vietnam’s currency – Dong – against the dollar. At the same time, a number of companies had to close. The demilitarization had already greatly increased unemployment, which now reached as much as 30%. At the same time, the severe food situation led to protest demonstrations. However, the good rice harvest in 1988-89 allowed an improvement in the living conditions of the population, and at the same time enabled Vietnam to re-join the group of rice exporting countries. At the end of 1989, the country exported about 1 million tonnes of rice, worth approx. $ 250 million. Exports went mainly to West Africa, the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and China.
The political upheavals in Eastern Europe. In the late 1980s, the CCP was not welcomed as it led to internal demands for political pluralism. In the absence of a multi-party system, the critical voices manifested from the end of 1989 within the Communist Party. Some sectors advocated a transition to a politically pluralistic and parliamentary system. A group called the “Club of Resistance Fighters” made up of revolutionaries from the South who had fought against both French and North Americans expressed their dissatisfaction, especially with the government’s economic policy. The club characterized itself as a pressure group within the party, demanded by its leaders greater momentum on the implementation of reforms and the introduction of political freedoms. The appearance of this group shed light on the country’s economic and social reality.