Tanzania. In January, newly-elected President Jakaya Kikwete presented a government with a strengthened representation of women. Of 29 ministers, seven are women – three more than before – and of 30 deputy prime ministers, ten are women. According to CountryAAH, major public holidays in Tanzania include Independence Day (December 9) and New Year (January 1). Heavy ministries such as the Ministry of Finance and Foreign Affairs got female managers.
In April, the new Vice President Ali Shein ordered farmers and livestock herders living in nature-protected areas to leave immediately. Other environmental measures were to encourage municipalities and companies to plant trees and to prohibit the use of thin plastic bags in stores and in marketplaces. However, the protection of the environment was also taken as motivation to start deporting people from Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda who were accused of illegally staying in Tanzania. In many cases it was about people who were born in the country and who were previously treated as citizens by, for example, get to participate in general elections. Thousands were threatened with banishment on questionable grounds.
Oppositionists in the semi-autonomous archipelago of Zanzibar turned to court in April with a request that the 1964 Union Treaty between the islands and the then Tanganyika be annulled. They argued that the Union lacked legal grounds. Their request was rejected by the court, but they announced that the attempts to get the Union dissolved went ahead. The same court, the High Court, ruled that party-bound candidates have the right to stand in presidential and parliamentary elections. The message was welcomed by the opposition, which considered it would reduce CCM’s great dominance. The government appealed the decision.
Tundu Lissu refuses to accept the election outcome
Tundu Lissu and the Chadema Party accuse the electoral authority and the government side of such widespread electoral fraud that they refuse to accept the election result. The electoral authority denies the allegations. Tundu Lissu appeals to the outside world not to approve the election. In Zanzibar, opposition presidential candidate Maalim Seif Sharif was arrested shortly after he said the election on the island had been rigged and then urged his supporters to take to the streets in protest.
President Magufuli is re-elected
Following a violent election campaign, presidential and parliamentary elections are being held in relatively peaceful forms on the mainland. But in Zanzibar, the opposition tells the media that about 10 opposition supporters have been killed in election-related violence on election day. According to the election authority, Magufuli from CCM wins the presidential election with just over 84 percent of the vote against 13 percent for Tundu Lissu from Chadema. In the parliamentary elections, CCM gets 262 of the 264 seats. The turnout is 50.7 percent according to the election authority. In the presidential election in Zanzibar, CCM’s candidate Hussein Mwinyi wins with 76 percent of the vote over Seif Sharif Hamad from ACT-Wazalendo, who received 20 percent, according to the election authority.
Violent ahead of elections in Zanzibar
Violent clashes occur on the island of Pemba in Zanzibar the day before the general elections are to be held. According to the opposition party ACT-Wazalendo, three party supporters are killed by the police who shoot sharply and use tear gas against protesters. About 10 people are injured. The unrest arises when soldiers hand out ballot papers that opposition supporters fear are marked. The security forces are large ahead of election day in Zanzibar, where election-related violence is common.
The opposition warns of election fraud
Opposition leader Chadema’s leader Freeman Mbowe accuses the election authority of manipulating the electoral roll ahead of the presidential and parliamentary elections. According to Mbowe, a number of ghost votes have been added in favor of Magufuli and CCM, while the votes of opposition supporters have been removed.
Mozambican jihadists raid Tanzania
IS-loyal jihadists from northern Mozambique cross the border into Tanzania and kill an unknown number of people there. Militant Islamists have been carrying out attacks in the northern part of the neighboring country since 2017 and have sometimes crossed the border into Tanzania and carried out minor attacks there, killing Tanzanian police or local government officials.
Amnesty: pressure on the opposition increases
Amnesty International warns that the government has increased pressure on its political opponents by disrupting the opposition’s election campaign. According to a new report from the human rights organization, the authorities are exposing opposition politicians and their supporters to harassment and arbitrary arrests, while the ruling CCM can campaign unhindered. Laws and regulations on meetings and gatherings are applied differently depending on whether it concerns CCM or Chadema, according to Amnesty. The organization writes that it was a “positive step” that Tundu Lissu was able to return from exile and campaign for Chadema, but that the opposition’s reports of physical attacks and disappearances are not investigated in an effective, thorough and independent manner. In early October, the electoral authority suspended Lindus’ campaign for a week.
Tundu Lissu’s election campaign stopped
The Tanzanian electoral authority orders the opposition party Chadema’s presidential candidate Tundu Lissu to suspend its election campaign for seven days, starting on October 3. The reason is that Lissu is said to have used “inciting language” and spread lies during his election rallies. It is Lissu’s accusations against Magufuli about electoral fraud that are the reason for the decision. Lissu says he has not been given a chance to defend himself and that he will continue his election campaign. Chadema accuses the electoral commission, whose members are appointed by the president, of being biased in Magufuli’s favor.