Latin America History
Latin America’s history began when Columbus, in an attempt to reach India by sailing west in 1492, reached the Caribbean. Over the next few decades, the Spaniards established themselves on several Caribbean islands; the first true colony, Santo Domingo, was founded on Hispaniola in 1496. With the Spanish discoveries in the west, the need quickly became apparent for a division of the world between the two major European maritime powers, Spain and Portugal. In the Tordesilla Treaty of 1494, a demarcation line was agreed approx. 2400 km west of Cape Verde Islands; all discoveries west of it were reserved for the Spaniards, while the Portuguese had a monopoly on discoveries in the east. Only in 1500 was it discovered how far east of South America stretched, and that Portugal was thus entitled to Brazil.
According to Countryaah, there are 30 countries in the Latin America. Early Latin America, in particular, was predominantly a Spanish America, and it was growing; In 1519-21, Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec War in Mexico, and in 1532-33 Francisco Pizarros followed conquest of the vast Inca kingdom in the Andes Although Spanish America and thus Latin America approx. By 1650, formally extending from the southern tip of South America to almost a third in the present United States, from California in the west to Florida in the east, real control was largely confined to coastal areas where plantation operations with extensive use of African slaves were established., as well as to the two great former Native American kingdoms, where parts of an already existing highly developed community organization could be taken over and where Native American labor could be used on large estates and in mining. Diseases of the Old World, i.e. chickenpox and measles, the indigenous Native American population decimated violently.
|Country||Emissions of carbon dioxide per capita (tonnes)||Total carbon dioxide emissions (thousand tonnes)|
|Argentina||4.6 (2016)||201 348 (2016)|
|Bolivia||2.0 (2016)||21 606 (2016)|
|Brazil||2.2 (2016)||462 299 (2016)|
|Chile||4.7 (2016)||85 822 (2016)|
|Colombia||2.0 (2016)||97 814 (2016)|
|Ecuador||2.5 (2016)||41 155 (2016)|
|Guyana||3.1 (2016)||2 384 (2016)|
|Paraguay||1.1 (2016)||7 407 (2016)|
|Peru||1.9 (2016)||57,414 (2016)|
|Suriname||3.1 (2016)||1 738 (2016)|
|Uruguay||2.0 (2016)||6 766 (2016)|
|Venezuela||5.5 (2016)||164 175 (2016)|
Gradually, the power monopolies of Portugal and Spain were challenged. Spain was pushed increasingly in North America until only Mexico was back, and in the Caribbean succeeded in including in the 1600s. France and England to take over respectively. present Haiti and Jamaica. During the same period, England became stuck in Belize in Central America and Guyana on the north coast of South America, where France and the Netherlands also won possession (French Guiana and Suriname).
Inspired by the United States independence and the French Revolution and with the Creole elites whose interests had become increasingly incompatible with the Spanish colonial power, the rebel’s ruling power won virtually all the Spanish colonies in America their independence in the early 1800s. Simón Bolívar’s (South America’s Great Liberation Hero, see Abbreviationfinder) attempt to create a large Colombia of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela quickly failed, as did similar efforts in, among other things. Central America, and state borders came largely to follow the administrative divisions of the colonial era. Brazil’s independence in 1822 was won more peacefully and was more a result of developments in Europe.
Especially in the 1800s. the political life in almost all of Latin America was marked by strife between the conservatives who wanted protectionist economic policy and relied on the ecclesiastical landlords, and the liberal, anti-clerical free-trade advocates.
The great economic interests and political influence of the United States is another common feature of most Latin American countries. Since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, the United States has with varying ability and intensity denied the right of non-US states to interfere in American affairs and, by extension, asserted its own right to influence. This has been reflected in the good neighbor’s policies, but also in strong interference with the Latin American countries’ internal circumstances, sometimes in the form of military intervention or support for strongly right-wing military regimes and coup-makers, when the US has threatened its interests (see the big cane policy). However, the neighborhood has also meant that Latin America was only insignificantly involved in World War I and World War II, which here were periods of general economic progress. Consequently, the relationship with the United States is very ambivalent; on the one hand, for example, Cuba’s Fidel Castro is a popular figure in many circles because he has been able to withstand the powerful attempts of the powerful neighbor, on the other represents the prosperity of the United States, which results in great emigration to the United States and in that the US products and American culture have become increasingly important in Latin America. Almost all Latin American states and the United States have been united in the Organization of American States (OAS) since 1948.
The colonial legacy, the conflict between conservatives and liberals as well as US interests and sensitivity to especially socialist colored governments are important explanations that Latin America’s recent history has, for many countries, been an endless series of civil wars, military coups and corrupt dictatorships, and the term Banana Republic has been seen as the epitome of Latin America. However, after the end of the Cold War and especially the severe economic problems of the 1980s, large external debt and high inflation, there is much to indicate that the trend has reversed. Latin America has been characterized by economic progress since the early 1990s, although the values are still very unequally distributed. Oppression of the Native American population in particular remains a problem in many places.