Slovenia. In April, the Prosecutor’s Office announced that the investigation into the country’s only suspected case of war crime in connection with Slovenia breaking out of Yugoslavia in 1991 had been closed. The target involved the shooting of three Yugoslav soldiers. According to CountryAAH, major public holidays in Slovenia include Independence Day (December 26) and New Year (January 1). A total of 47 Yugoslav soldiers died in the short conflict.
In July, the EU gave the final clear sign for entry into the EMU from the turn of the year. Slovenia thus became the first of the ten countries that became new members in 2004 to be given the right to completely replace their currency with the euro.
The independence process was followed by two years of severe economic downturn, in 1991 and 1992. During this period, annual inflation was more than 200%, while unemployment reached 13%. At the beginning of 1993, foreign debt exceeded $ 1.764 million, although the country could still show the highest annual income per capita. inb. – approx. $ 6,000 – among the former Yugoslav republics.
Center politician Janez Drnovsek was appointed prime minister in April 1992. At the December election, the Liberal Democratic Party, led by Drnovsek, captured the majority; he then formed a coalition government with the participation of the Christian Democrats, the country’s second largest party.
1993 was a year marked by economic stabilization, created on the basis of a rapprochement with the EU. Slovenia defined itself as “a European country, not belonging to the Balkans”. The government deficit was reduced to 2% of GDP, inflation remained below 5%, and thanks to exports and the increase in tourism, the 1993 deficit was only $ 70 million. The local currency, the Tolar, had a floating rate, and showed some stability, supported by the country’s foreign exchange reserves, which amounted to about $ 700 million. In January, Slovenia joined the IMF and in May joined the Council of Europe; in addition, the Vizegrad agreement was signed with the republics of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Following forecasts that talked about economic growth – but at the same time the rise in unemployment, which peaked at 14% in early 1994 – the government launched a privatization program for the 2,500 state-owned enterprises.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Even after the settlement of the Slavic populations in the 7th century, the Slovenia maintained ties with the Western, Latin, Catholic world. Relevant remains underline the importance of monastic orders (Benedictine; Cistercian) for the development of Romanesque architecture (Gornji Grad; Stična; Žiče). While the Romanesque remains dominant in the Venetian area and in Istria (Holy Trinity in Hrastovlje), monastic architecture also played a significant role in the development of the Gothic, especially in the northern area (13th century: Kostantinjevica; Gornji Grad). In Ptujska Gora, the church of Slovenia Maria is a notable example of Central European Gothic, influenced by the workshop of P. Parler. From the 14th century, the coastal area underwent the influence of the Venetian and Italian Renaissance while a large part of the Renaissance production of the Slovenia was affected by the architecture of Carinthia (influence of B. Firthaler in the church of Kraniska di Gora, 1520 ca.) and the Viennese one (church of the Epiphany, completed in 1577, in Slovenske Gorice). Persistence of Romanesque and archaic forms can be found in the church of Dvor (begun in 1525) and in the nave of the church of Leskovec (begun in 1530-40). Roman and Venetian Baroque influences had with Italian builders in the 17th century. (church of Slovenia Giacomo in Ljubljana, rebuilt by the Jesuits on medieval pre-existing structures, 1613-15; church with an octagonal layout in Nova Štifa, near Ribnica, 1641-71; Ursuline church in Ljubljana, 1718-26, attributed to G. Frimigelica etc.). Only towards the middle of the 19th century, and especially in the first years of the 20th century, do new trends begin, open to contemporary European experiences: M. Pertsch, P. Nobile, F. von Schmidt; the activity of M. Fabiani is significant.
● Like other regions of the north-western Balkan peninsula, united in a single state from 1918 to 1991, also Slovenia has expressed its own cultural traditions, in original and new researches, also in the artistic and architectural fields. The approach to impressionism, through the German artists in the case of R. Jakopič, evolves towards more markedly expressionist experiences; a more formal and constructive research concerns the work of F. and T. Kralj. After World War II, the Slovenian art scene was extremely varied and lively, as evidenced by initiatives such as the International Biennial of Graphics or (since 1994) the Triennial of Contemporary Art in Ljubljana, and the participation of Slovenian artists in important international exhibitions. From the overcoming of informal problems through a new figuration, with G. Stupica and J. Bernik, to the conceptual trends of the OHO group (1966-71) from Ljubljana, original elaborations of artistic languages and the growing role of new media are highlighted. In the pictorial field, E. Bernard emerges, G. Gnamuš, T. Šušnik, B. Gorenec, M. Gumilar; spectacular paintings created by the VSSD group (Ves slikar svoj dolg “Painter, do you know your duty?”). Complex projects presented the IRWIN group, connected to the ‘retro-avant-garde’ movement NSK (Neue Slowenische Kunst). In the sphere of sculpture and interesting installations are the researches of J. Barsi, with a minimalist imprint; M. Potrč, who works with architectural materials; A. Šušteršic, M. Osojnik. The possibilities offered by new media, from video to digital processing, to net art, found effective support in the Ljudmila organization (Ljubljana digital media lab); of notable interest the work of M. Kovačič, M. Grznic and A. Šmid, who have been working together since 1982; T. Pogačar, V. Čosič, N. Prosenc, M. Peljan.
● In the architectural-urban planning field, one of the most important achievements in the immediate post-war period is E. Ravnikar’s project for the Revolution Square in Ljubljana. Among the architects active in the 1970-80s are Slovenia Sever, M. Mušič, V. Ravnikar. Among the architectural works of the period between the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century: residential block (Studio OFIS, 2000); Atrium of the Slovenian National Gallery and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Sadar Vuga Arhitekti, 1998 and 2000); Šmartinska multifunctional building (Studio A. Biro, 2002); Union Brewery Building (A. Princic, 1999), all in Ljubljana; Hypermarket Baumaxx and Drive-in Mc Donald’s (Njric & Njric Arhitekti, 1999 and 2000) in Maribor.