Peru. According to CountryAAH, major public holidays in Peru include Independence Day (July 28) and New Year (January 1). The presidential elections in Peru became dramatic. In the first round of the elections on April 9, Ollanta Humala from PNUP (Partido Nacionalista – Unión por el Perú) received 30% and thus the most votes, while it was long unclear whether Lourdes Flores from the UN Alliance (Unidad Nacional) or Alan García from PAP (Partido Aprista) Peruano), who was president of Peru in 1985–90, had received the second most votes and would thus fight against Humala in the second round of elections on June 4. They both got about 25% each, but García became the winner between them, and in the second round García won over Humala by a margin. In contrast, Humala’s party PNUP became the largest party in the congressional elections held April 9 with 45 out of 120 seats, while PAP received 36. The dissatisfaction with the contrast between strong economic growth and continued poverty for nearly half of Peru’s population is considered the cause of PNUP:
In the local elections on November 19, things went much worse for García and PAP, but so did Humala and all other established parties. García’s promise three days before the election of nearly a billion dollars in new social projects to combat widespread poverty did not help. Of the country’s 25 major regions, PAP won only three. The big winners were the local bosses (“caudillos”) who usually set up as ‘autonomous’; such won in 20 of the major regions and in 112 of the 195 provinces.
Even in the mayoral election, things went bad for President Garcia’s party. For example, PAP lost in Trujillo, where the party held power for 40 years, and Luís Castañeda from one of the parties of the Lourdes Flores alliance UN won the important mayor post in the capital Lima.
The first lots
In response to, among other things, the close attachment of military powers to foreign capital, the national bourgeoisie founded the so-called civilian party – Partido Civilista. Those behind the party were the Peruvian oligarchy made up of traders, financiers and landowners, and in 1872 the party elected its founder, Manuel Pardo, as president.
After the Pacific War, the role of the guano was played out, and the “guano bourgeoisie” lost the opportunity to consolidate its economic power as a result of the war and the loss of the nitrous areas. For the country as a whole, the war and the end of the guano trade led to economic decline. For the civilian party, which was largely blamed for the military defeat and at the same time lost its economic base, led to less support, and only in 1899 did the party regain political power. Then the party retained its presidential power until after World War I. Despite some progress – especially in the social legislation – the civilian party remained the party of the oligarchy.
In the first decades of the 20th century, the large-scale copper mining began – especially by the North American group Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation. Foreign capital was also active in the extraction of oil in the north and in the cultivation of sugar cane and cotton in the northern and central regions.
The modernization of the economy and the rise of the First World War formed the basis for the development of new classes. Private and public services and the new sectors of the economy, on the one hand, created a burgeoning middle class, and on the other, a growing working class in the cities.
The interests of these new classes were not safeguarded by the Civilian Party, which lost the election in 1919 to a former civilian politician and president, Augusto Leguía. Leguía prevailed under the slogan: “a new fatherland” (“Patria nueva”) and established himself as dictator for an eleven year period. Leguía’s goal was to create a modern capitalist state. To achieve this goal, he sought to undermine the position of traditional oligarchy and open the country to foreign capital. During his dictatorship, Leguía managed to break the political organization of the oligarchy – the Civilist Party – but the oligarchy continued to dominate the economy after Leguía was overthrown in a military coup in 1930.