Mexico. The opposition party PRD (Partido de la Revolución Democrática) increased its representation in the congress in the congressional elections held in July. However, the presidential election held at the same time became very even and caused a slight political chaos in Mexico for the rest of the year.
When the electoral authority finished a 31-hour recalculation of votes on July 6, it became clear that Andrés Manuel López Obrador, candidate for PRD, lost a hair moan against Felipe Calderón for the PAN (Partido Acción Nacional) government. According to CountryAAH, major public holidays in Mexico include Independence Day (September 15) and New Year (January 1). Only half a percentage point or 244,000 votes out of a total of 41 million separated the two, resulting in a wave of wild protests and accusations of electoral fraud among López Obrador’s supporters. López Obrador even symbolically proclaimed president on Revolution Day November 20. Neither the National Election Tribunal nor foreign election observers supported the PRD’s accusations, but the protests continued, among other things. with riot in the Congress plenary.
Outgoing President Vicente Fox had to cancel his last speech to the nation on September 2 because supporters of López Obrador occupied the pulpit in Congress in protest, which Fox described as an attack on the presidential office and the Mexican people. Continued opposition to the election results took the form of a civil disobedience campaign and occupation of Mexico City’s central square Zócalo, in order to achieve yet another recalculation. However, the opposition, by López Obrador’s supporters called ‘the yellow revolution’, with reference to both López Obrador’s yellow campaign shirts and ‘the orange revolution’ in Ukraine, ebbed out towards the end of the year and Calderón was constitutionally sworn in in the December 1 presidential office.
Even in the southern state of Oaxaca it was uneasy. A teacher strike that broke out in May escalated into a general protest movement against Governor Ulises Ruíz and prompted the government to send in federal police and military.
On October 26, US President George W. Bush approved a Senate proposal to allocate nearly $ 2 billion to the construction of the controversial barricade along the 1,126-km border to Mexico to deal with illegal immigration. Mexico’s leading politicians criticize the unison project and critics in the US that the National Guard patrolling along the border has already reduced immigration by 45%.
Mexico City, Ciudad de México, Mexico DF, capital of Mexico; 8. 4 million residents (2019), in the metropolitan area 20. 9 million (2019). The city is located 2,300 meters above sea level in the southern part of Mesa Central. The administrative city of Mexico City is similar to the Distrito Federal, but urban development has spread far beyond its borders into the state of Mexico. The metropolis of Mexico City is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing cities, a development that has entailed technical and social difficulties as well as the most catastrophic environmental problems.
Mexico City is the political, administrative, economic, industrial and cultural center of the country. The industry is very versatile and still includes significant elements of heavy industry. Mexico City has about half of the country’s industrial production. Tourism is also an important industry. Mexico City’s street system is overloaded by the amount of cars. The city has a subway network, but most of the public transport is by bus. Benito Juárez International Airport is located in eastern Mexico City. Outside of that, in the state of Mexico, one of Mexico City’s vast suburban neighborhoods has grown, and with its at least 1. 5 million residents, Nezahualcóyotl is formally one of the nation’s largest cities. Mexico City is a highly segregated urban area and has high unemployment and underemployment.
The city has several universities and a technical college. Among the museums are the Museo Nacional de Anthropología, which is considered the world’s foremost of its kind. Mexico City is also a leading publishing site for Spanish-language literature.
Mexico City was founded in 1522 by the Spaniards on the ruins of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán. At the huge square of Zócalo (Plaza de la Constitución), the site of the main temple of the Aztecs, Mexico City’s cathedral, Latin America’s largest church building, was built in the Renaissance style (1563-1667). Its neo-classical facade and tower were added in the 18th century. Adjacent to the cathedral was the sacristy El Sagrario Metropolitano (inaugurated 1768), with a rich facade in churriguer style. Also at Zócalo is the Palacio Nacional (1692–99), with frescoes by Diego Rivera. Capilla del Pocito (1771–91) is a typical Baroque church with a central plan. In the neoclassical style, the Palacio de la Minería (1797–1813) and the church Nuestra Señora de Loreto (1806–16) were built.
In the early 1900s, the architecture of Mexico City was influenced by modernism. At Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City’s parade street, huge buildings with glass facades were erected. Mexico City’s largest theater, Palacio de Bellas Artes (1900–34), is an Art Nouveau-inspired building. There are several museums at Chapultepec Park, including Museo Nacional de Anthropología (1964), Museo de Arte Moderno (1965) and Museo Rufino Tamayo (1981).
In southern Mexico City was built the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM, (1949–54), whose general plan was designed by Mario Pani and Enrique del Moral. The main library was covered with mosaics by Juan O’Gorman and the university stadium with mosaics by Diego Rivera. UNAM was listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 2007.
Mexico City’s northern satellite city (1957–58) was built by Luis Barragán in collaboration with sculptor Mathias Goeritz. five prism-shaped towers.
Mexico City, which was built by Hernán Cortés in 1522 on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, became the capital of New Spain in 1535 and then grew steadily despite severe floods and epidemics. Mexico City became the capital of the Republic of Mexico in 1824. During the years 1847-48, the city was occupied by troops from the United States.
During the Mexican Revolution (1910-20), Mexico City was a battlefield and in the hands of changing factions.
The city was hit in 1985 by a severe earthquake with several thousand deaths.