France Language – Morphology Part III
The same happened with the feminine, in which a nom. plur. filias, of Italic dialectal origin, had replaced in Gaul, already in the Latin era, the classic name filiae. From the outset there was a decline with only one case: sing. nom. acc. filia (m): fille ; plur. nom. acc. filias: filles. This type extended in ancient times to most of the females of the 5th decl. Only the female ones of the 3rd decl. for a long time retain an original inflection (sing. nom. turris: ant. fr. tors, acc. t ŭ rrem ; tor, plur. nom. acc. turres: tors); the parisyllables had modeled themselves on the parisyllables; nom. * virtútis, acc. virtútem: vertuz, vertu: nom. * floris, acc. florem: flors, flor, except sóror, sorórem, ant. fr. suer, seror. The influence of the fille type soon led to names without – s: tor, main, vertu, flor ; and finally a unique type emerged without – s in sing., with – s in plur. The mur and fílle types soon eliminated a special declension of proper names and some personal names, created by the fusion of the Germanic inflection with the Latin Cárolus Carlónem: Charles – on, Bértha Berthánem: Berthe – ain, reduced to Charles, Berthe.
Adjectives, roughly treated like nouns, are reduced to two types: 1st: bonus: masculine sing. nom. bons, acc. bon, plur. nom. bon. acc. bons ; female sing. bone, plur. bones ; 2nd: fortis: masc. female sing. nom. forced, acc. fort, plur. nom. fort, acc. Forced. The 1st type influenced the 2nd and the declension was reduced to two cases, making a single inflection prevail: sing. bon, bonne, plur. bons, bonnes = sing. fort, strong, plur. forts, fortes. The synthetic comparatives and superlatives fortior fortissimus have been replaced by analytical forms plus fort, le plus fort, très fort, except for a few.
According to Thesciencetutor.org, the inflection of pronouns is maintained better than that of nouns and adjectives. The Latin dative and neuter have been partly continued. It is often the case to distinguish between tonic and unstressed forms, which were then able to be used for each other. Personal pronouns derive from the corresponding Latin pronouns and are: nomin. sing. je, tu, il (this from ĭ ll ī for ĭ lle, α of qu ī) elle, plur. nous, vous, il (later ils, α of murs) elles (from * illas, α of nom. * filias); the accused. unstressed sing. me, te, le, la, neutral le, plur. nous, vous, les ; the accused. sing. tonics moi, toi, lui (from illui, α of which, hui [ c ]) femm. li (ϕ from * ĭ llaei α) plur. nous, vous, eux, elles ; i dative sing. me, you, them, plur. nous, vous, leur (from illorum, used as a dative). The form li of fr. ant. has been replaced [δ] by elle as acc. female tonic and from him as dat. male female unstressed. Still alive in personal pronouns, the dative in other pronouns exists only as a residue with no random value. The questions and the related ones have kept it a little longer. Of these pronouns the plurals quos, quas, quibus have fallen into disuse, the femm. quae, quam were eliminated by the males qu ī, quem ; then in fr. ant. we arrived at a relative-interrogative nom. here, acc. que, dat. which. Modern French has abandoned the dative; but it still retains the neutral qu ĭ d, which replaces qu ŏ d, in an unstressed (que) or tonic (quoi) form. Soon a new relative pronoun was created by means of qualis combined with the article: nom. liquels, acc. lequel. Finally, relative adverbs have developed, dont da * de unde e que from the fusion [ϕ] of quem, qu ĭ d, quae atonic. Latin demonstratives have been preserved only in compound forms, and in the article (demonstrative with attenuated value) representing ĭ lle. Masch. sing. nom. ĭ ll ī (with ī α of qu ī): li, acc. illu (m): lo then le, plur. nom. ī llĭ: li, acc. illos: les ; female sing. nom. accusative illa (m), la, plur. nom. acc. ĭ llas: les. The demonstratives proper go back to ĭ lle and iste, reinforced by exceptions: masc. sing. nom. (i) cil, (i) cist, acc. cel, ce (s) t, dat. celui, baskets ; plur. nom. cil, cist, acc. cels (ceux), cez (ces), femm. singl. nom. acc. cele (celi), baskets (baskets); plur. nom. acc. celles, cestes (cez, ces). In Middle French the types cil, cist have been specialized, one as a pronoun, the other as an adjective; finally, in modern French, celi, cist, ce (s) tui, cil have been eliminated. On the other hand, the neutralecce hoc: ço, then ce, remained alive, albeit in competition starting from the century. XVII with ça, deriving from ce + là, which has become cela, then ça with the fall of the e and the elimination of l, undoubtedly first in post-consonant position, sur ç’la, sur ça in front of à cela.
In possessives the unstressed series is distinguished from the accentuated one. They continue the types of vulgar Latin, characterized by apophonies * stqum, * squm, * m ẹ am, by contaminations t ę is s ę us, t ę um s ę um and by reductions mus, tus, sus ; mum, tum, sum ; mam, tam, sam ; * myi, m ī, * mę (u) s, * m ę (u) m. * t ǫ (u) m, * t ę (u) m, s ǫ (u) m, * s ę (u) m. In the masculine the unstressed series had in fr. ancient one declension: sing. nom. mes, tes, ses, acc. mon, ton, son ; plur. nom. mi, ti, si, acc. me ṣ, tes, ses ; the name later disappeared. The singular feminine ma, ta, sa, plur. mes, tes, ses is maintained, but from the middle fr. onwards ma, ta, sa are replaced [δ] by mon, ton, son in front of the initial vowel: ton amie according to the type bon (e) amie. The aceentata series, originally mien, tuen, suen, has given way to mien, tien, sien ; this model was a female size mienne, tienne, sienne which replaced the ancient female moie, toie, soybeans, originally moie, toe, soe [φ]. The possessive of the plurality nostrum, vostrum gave no (s) three, your reduced, in the plural, to noz, voz (then nos, vos). In the 3rd person lor represents the genitive illorum. Among the indefinite adjectives pronouns, the dative nuluihas disappeared, while autrui has been preserved without random value. The ancient nom. plural tuit [ϕ from t ü tti before vowel] has given way to acc. tous.
Overall, except perhaps in conjugation, in which some new forms have been created, the morphological history of French is characterized by the gradual simplification of the inflection.