Hungary. In the April parliamentary elections, socialist
leader Ferenc Gyurcsány's coalition succeeded in regaining
confidence. It was the first time a government has been
re-elected since the current democracy was born in 1990. The
coalition won 210 of Parliament's 386 seats. The largest
opposition party Fidesz took 164 seats.
During the summer, feelings between Hungary and
neighboring Slovakia swelled, after some ethnic Hungarians
in Slovakia had been attacked. Prime Minister Gyurcsány
condemned the abuses and accused Slovakia of increasing
CountryAAH, Prime Minister Gyurcsány ended up in a violent political
storm in September, when mass media revealed a tape
recording of speeches ahead of a closed party meeting.
There, the Socialist leader acknowledged that the party had
lied to voters to win the election in April. In the
electoral movement, they had, among other things, promised
tax cuts, but after the election, increases in both taxes
and gas prices and various fees were proposed. Gyurcsany's
statement aroused anger. Protest demonstrations against the
government's proposed austerity degenerate into violent
riots and clashes with riot police in Budapest. Many people
were injured. The protesters demanded Gyurcsany's
resignation, but the prime minister declared that he
intended to continue in office and threatened with harsh
measures if the violence continued. Gyurcsány eventually
apologized for the rough language he used in the recorded
speech, but he did not apologize for deliberately bringing
the voters behind the light. He also provided more measures
to reduce the large budget deficit.
President László Sólyom in October criticized Gyurcsány,
who he believed had used unacceptable means to retain power.
At the same time, Gyurcsany's Socialist Party suffered heavy
losses in the country's regional elections. The opposition
went ahead and opposition leader Viktor Orban felt that
voters had shown that they wanted Gyurcsány removed. This
one remained docked. Then the president declared that the
coalition should appoint a new leader. But Gyurcsány
requested a vote of confidence in Parliament and won it by
207 votes to 165.
In October, the fiftieth anniversary of the Budapest
uprising was brutally crushed by the Soviet military with
tens of thousands of casualties and hundreds of thousands of
people on the run. The memorial ceremonies were bordered by
hostile demonstrations, which were met by tear gas and
rubber bullets from the police. The political opposition
boycotted Prime Minister Gyurcsány's appearance and declared
that the whole country was against his "illegal government".
The European Commission called on the Hungarian government
to explain police brutality reports in the autumn
Budapest, the capital of Hungary, lies on the Danube at the crossing between
the Transdanubian Highlands and the Hungarian Plains; 1.74 million incl.
suburban municipalities (2011).
The city consists of two originally distinct cities, Buda and Pest, located
on either side of the Danube and connected by eight bridges, the best known
being the Chain Bridge (1839-49), Elizabeth Bridge (1897-1903) and Freedom
Bridge (1896); they were all blown up in 1944-45, but later rebuilt.
Obuda and Buda on the west bank of the Danube are the oldest districts and
today appear as residential and museum areas; Plague is characterized by
administrative buildings and large residential and industrial areas that extend
The earliest industrialization in the period up to World War I took place on
the outskirts of Pest and continued after the Second World War at a rapid pace.
As a result of the transition to the market economy in the early 1990's, a number
of the older industrial companies have entered into joint venture agreements
with abroad; Thus, the Tungsram incandescent lamp factory was taken over by the
Dutch group Philips, and the bus factory Ikarus, whose market was previously the
planned economic Eastern Europe, has entered into agreements with the German MAN
The rapid industrialization after World War II led to strong urbanization,
but the upheaval after 1990 has meant that a large part of Budapest's workforce
is unemployed. As Budapest also acts as a magnet for the many unemployed people
from the rest of Hungary, the city has had serious social problems; large areas
from the 1950's and 1960's on the outskirts of Pest lie as slums. In 2005, six
districts in Budapest established an association to resaturate residential and
industrial areas on the outskirts of the city with EU support.
Budapest's cityscape and building history are characterized by the fact that
the city was the second major city in the Austro-Hungarian double monarchy
1867-1920 and that in a few neighborhoods it is a relatively young capital. The
terrain differences between the hilly Buda and the plain plague have left traces
in the town plans.
The old town is dominated by two high with narrow and winding streets: the
Gellért mountain with the Citadel (1848-49) and the Borghøjen with the Buda
Castle, the Fishery Bastion (1901-05) and the Gothic Matthias Church, which
began in the 1200's. and i.e. has served as coronation church for Hungarian
The medieval Buda Castle has been rebuilt and expanded many times and appears
as a mighty Baroque-style building with an over 300 m long facade towards the
The strategic location of the mounds caused major destruction during World
War II, but the area was restored in 1954-68. The classic Sándors Castle was
restored in the 1980's and 1990's, and since 2002, the Sándors Castle has been the
residence of the Prime Minister. Along Buda's Donaubred, the corso runs with a
series of thermal baths and the famous Hotel Gellért from the 1880's.
Plague is the central district, bounded by large ring streets with monumental
19th-century railway stations. It is dominated by long, straight boulevards and
main traffic from the outskirts towards the Danube, where they continue along
the river to the west on the Buda side.
From the Austro-Hungarian period, a large number of official buildings
originate, among other things. the National Museum of Classicist Style
(1837-47), the 268-m-long Parliament Building at the Danube Plague, built
1885-1902 by Imre Steindl in the New Gothic style, St. Stephen's Basilica in
Classicism and Neo-Renaissance (1851-1905), the Eclectic Style Art Museum
(opened 1906) as well as large residential and business districts.
Pest's central city center, extending from the Erzsébet boulevard towards the
Danube, is western in its character, with the many main thoroughfares, business
streets, squares and squares reminiscent of Vienna, Berlin and Paris. Since the
upheavals in 1989 and the opening to the West, the major main areas have been
dominated by foreign branded stores.
The museums and sights emphasize the importance of Budapest as an important
cultural city in Eastern Europe: the National Museum with significant historical
collections, including the crown regalia with the Stephen Crown, the rich art
museum that houses significant works by European artists, the National Gallery
of Hungarian Art, the Jewish Museum, the Opera and the Academy of Music. The
Hero Square with the Millennium Monument and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at
the city park in Pest, like other monuments and buildings, was erected during
the 1896 celebration of the Millennial Year of Hungary's founding. An important
part of Budapest's cultural life is the music, which ranges from gypsy music by
composers Franz Liszt, Zoltán Kodály and Béla Bartók to jazz and rock music.
Tourism is of increasing importance. Budapest's location as Hungary's central
traffic hub has, after the upheaval, caused major problems, since the city's
bridges, streets and roads have not had the capacity to greatly increase private
motoring after 1990, which among other things. has led to a significant increase
in pollution despite efforts to limit it.
The public transport system, which has so far been based on trams, buses,
local railways and one of Europe's oldest subway systems (1896), was renewed in
1996 and 2003.