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Europe's Land

The landforms in Europe are shaped by younger crustal movements, especially tertiary, of the ice age history and of the bedrock.

Mountain Ranges

Elevated mountain range areas, Caledonian, Hercynian and Tertiary, often form highlands or mountainous areas, while flat or slightly undulating layers of loose material, deposited by glaciers and rivers, form the lowlands. The elevated tertiary mountain ranges form the largest and highest mountain ranges: Sierra Nevada, Pyrenees, Apennines, Alps and Carpathians.

Elderly massifs, formed under older folds (Hercynic and Caledonian), are raised as blocks: throughout Spain, the Central Massif in France, further Normandy - Brittany, Rhinean shale mountains at the lower Rhine, Les Vosges and the Black Forest, with the intermediate Rhine valley being formed by subsidence, and Böhmerwald - Sudetene. In the British Isles: Cornwall, Wales, Cumberland, the highlands around the center of Ireland, and the Scottish Highlands, as well as the western part of the Scandinavian peninsula. The landforms in these areas are characterized by the intricate, strongly changing bedrock structure. Where small glaciers (bottom glaciers) have worked and are found, the typical alpine forms are found in the mountains, as in the Alps, Jotunheimen and Lofoten.

Europe's Land


Of the lowlands, Posletta and the Hungarian lowlands represent low-lying areas between the mountains, filled with loose material. On the Spanish block there are almost flat layers, which give even shapes even though there is not much lowland. The lowlands within Les Landes in France, around Garonne, the Paris Basin and the London Basin consist of almost flat layers, just slightly curved at the edges towards the raised masses. The Netherlands is almost entirely formed by river fillings in the sea. The northern European lowlands of Denmark, northern Germany, Poland, Belarus and western Russia consist of loose material, formed during the ice ages, the Moors- and river material. Here is low-lying land, but with many relatively marked valleys, made of meltwater rivers during the ice age. The bedrock areas in Sweden and Finland are low, but often with marked, hilly terrain and with a number of lakes. Lakes are most often found in previously iced areas; the largest are Ladoga and Onega in Russia.

European Mediterranean

Coastal Areas

The European Mediterranean coast and the Portuguese-Spanish Atlantic coast are for the most part a rocky coast, where high land reaches the sea. Where the lowlands go down to the sea, the high coast is interrupted by flat coasts, which are deep in the Adriatic, where Po sets up its huge delta. Along the coast of Italy, protruding parts of higher lands alternate with strong abrasion of the sea, with parts where the loose material is deposited by the ocean currents and by rivers from land. West of the Rhône estuary stretches a low coast with shallow lakes within. The French coast towards the Bay of Biscay is low, characterized by loose material, and with coastal dunes along the entire beach. The Brittany-Normandy coast is in solid rock, this also applies to large parts of Ireland, Cornwall and Wales. The coast between Normandy and Belgium consists of stratified rocks. Here it is often a steep, relatively straight coast, and long stretches of coast consist of chalk layers.

The coast of the Netherlands, the northwestern part of Germany and Denmark and the southern Baltic coast are mostly low. Frisian islands are old coastal dune rows that the sea has broken through in relatively recent times. In Denmark there are smaller lots with steep coasts, cliffs in moraine material, or in limestone like Møns klint. The Finnish and Swedish Baltic Sea coast, the Swedish west coast and the Norwegian south coast are formed by a relatively low, hilly bedrock that dips into the sea. The small elevation portions then act as islands and reefs. See population of all countries in Europe on Countryaah.

Large parts of the Scottish coast and the entire Norwegian west coast are relatively high and characterized by the fjords that cut into the country. These fjords are made up of glacial streams that have flowed through the valleys from inland during the Ice Age. Actual coastal islands are found only on certain stretches, such as on the northeastern Adriatic coast, where the direction of the rock in the mountain runs along the coast. In the northwestern France, Scotland, Norway, Sweden and Finland, the islands often consist of hard, old rock.

Countries in Europe

Countries in Europe
  1. European Union
  2. Aland
  3. Albania
  4. Andorra
  5. Austria
  6. Belarus
  7. Belgium
  8. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  9. Bulgaria
  10. Croatia
  11. Czech Republic
  12. Denmark
  13. Estonia
  14. Faroe Islands
  15. Finland
  16. France
  17. Germany
  18. Greece
  19. Hungary
  20. Iceland
  21. Ireland
  22. Italy
  23. Kosovo
  24. Latvia
  25. Liechtenstein
  26. Lithuania
  27. Luxembourg
  28. Malta
  29. Moldova
  30. Monaco
  31. Montenegro
  32. Netherlands
  33. Northern Macedonia
  34. Norway
  35. Poland
  36. Portugal
  37. Romania
  38. Russia
  39. San Marino
  40. Serbia
  41. Slovakia
  42. Slovenia
  43. Spain
  44. Sweden
  45. Switzerland
  46. Ukraine
  47. United Kingdom
  48. Vatican City

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